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Coverage criteria policies

Vision therapy / orthoptics

These services may or may not be covered by all HealthPartners plans. Please see your plan documents for your own coverage information. If there is a difference between this general information and your plan documents, your plan documents will be used to determine your coverage.

Administrative process

Prior authorization is not required for the initial twelve (12) office visits for Vision Therapy / Orthoptics.


Up to twelve (12) vision therapy / orthoptic treatment visits in the office to establish a home program are covered per the indications listed below and per your plan documents.

Indications that are covered
  1. Treatment of convergence insufficiency.
  2. Prisms, lenses, and filters necessary to complete the home program are covered under Durable Medical Equipment benefits.
Indications that are not covered
  1. Vision therapy / orthoptic office visits for any diagnosis other than convergence insufficiency are not covered because they are considered experimental/investigational.
  2. Vision therapy/orthoptic office visits exceeding 12 visits are considered not medically necessary. Published clinical studies show that a limited number of office visits, usually less than twelve, are required for resolution of convergence insufficiency. Office visits are only necessary to help establish or support a home program.
  3. Educational materials, including, but not limited to, computer software and workbooks (code 99071).
  4. Corrective lenses (eyeglasses) for ongoing use.
  5. Vision restoration therapy is considered experimental and investigational for all indications because its effectiveness has not been validated in well-designed prospective clinical studies.


Convergence Insufficiency is the inability to maintain binocular function (keeping the two eyes working together) while working at a near distance. Typically, one eye will turn outward (intermittent exotropia) when focusing on a word or object at near.

Vision therapy is a sequence of activities individually prescribed and monitored by an optometrist to develop efficient visual skills and processing. It is an individualized, progressive program that is administered in the office under the optometrist’s guidance.

Vision restoration therapy (VRT) is a home-based program that targets the vision center of the brain and is intended to improve visual function in patients with visual field deficits that may result from stroke or TBI. Patients employs a computer screen to focus on a displayed central point and respond every time they see light stimuli appear.

If available, codes are listed below for informational purposes only, and do not guarantee member coverage or provider reimbursement. The list may not be all-inclusive.

ICD10 Codes




Convergence insufficiency

CPT Codes




Orthoptic and/or pleoptic training, with continuing medical direction and evaluation


Therapeutic procedure, 1 or more areas, each 15 minutes; therapeutic exercises to develop strength and endurance, range of motion and flexibility


Therapeutic procedure, 1 or more areas, each 15 minutes; neuromuscular reeducation of movement, balance, coordination, kinesthetic sense, posture, and/or proprioception for sitting and/or standing activities


Therapeutic activities, direct (one on one) patient contact (use of dynamic activities to improve functional performance), each 15 minutes


Educational supplies, such as books, tapes, and pamphlets, for the patient's education at cost to physician or other qualified health care professional

CPT Copyright American Medical Association. All rights reserved. CPT is a registered trademark of the American Medical Association.


This information is for most, but not all, HealthPartners plans. Please read your plan documents to see if your plan has limits or will not cover some items. If there is a difference between this general information and your plan documents, your plan documents will be used to determine your coverage. These coverage criteria may not apply to Medicare Products if Medicare requires different coverage. For more information regarding Medicare coverage criteria or for a copy of a Medicare coverage policy, contact Member Services at 952-883-7979 or 1-800-233-9645.


  1. American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Ophthalmology, Council on Children with Disabilities; American Academy of Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; American Association of Certified Orthoptists. Joint statement -- Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. Pediatrics, 124(2), 837-44. Reaffirmed 2014. Accessed July 2018. Available at URL address:
  2. ECRI Institute. (2012). Vision Therapy for Treating Eye Disorders. Plymouth Meeting, PA: ECRI Institute.
  3. Hayes, Inc. Hayes Health Technology Brief. Vision Therapy for Convergence Insufficiency and Accommodative Dysfunction in Children. Lansdale, PA: Hayes, Inc. December 2013. Reviewed November 2015/ Archived January 2017.
  4. Hayes, Inc. Hayes Medical Technology Directory Report. Vision Therapy for Accommodative and Vergence Dysfunction. Lansdale, PA: Hayes, Inc.; November 2011. Reviewed May 2015/ Archived December 2016.
  5. Hayes, Inc. Hayes Medical Technology Directory Report. Vision Therapy for Dyslexia and Other Reading and Learning Disabilities. Lansdale, PA: Hayes, Inc. July 2012. Reviewed May 2016/ Archived August 2017.

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Policy activity

  • 07/01/1996 - Date of origin
  • 06/01/2018 - Effective date
Review date
  • 06/2018
Revision date
  • 11/30/2015

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