Mucopolysaccharidosis I and II are lysosomal storage disorders that, despite treatment with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and/or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), continue to cause significant skeletal abnormalities leading to pain, stiffness, physical dysfunction, and short stature. Tumor necrosis factor - alpha (TNF-alpha) is elevated in individuals with MPS I and II and associated with pain and physical dysfunction. Therefore, we evaluated the safety and effects of the TNF-alpha inhibitor adalimumab in patients with MPS I and II in a 32-week, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of adalimumab at a dose of 20 mg (weight 15-<30 kg) or 40 mg (weight >/= 30 kg) administered subcutaneously every other week or saline placebo for 16 weeks. Participants were evaluated at baseline, week 16, and week 32 with the Children's Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50), the Pediatric Pain Questionnaire (PPQ), range-of-motion (ROM) measurements, anthropometry, six-minute walk test (6MWT), hand dynamometer, and laboratory evaluations for safety. The primary outcome was safety and primary efficacy outcome was bodily pain (BP) measured by the CHQ-PF50. Two subjects, one with MPS I and one with MPS II, completed the study. Adalimumab was well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events. Standardized BP scores for age and gender were higher (i.e. less pain) at the end of the treatment versus placebo phase for both subjects. Subject #1 became unblinded during treatment due to skin erythema. Behavior measured by both CHQ-PF50 and parental report improved during treatment compared to placebo in both subjects. ROM improved by > 5 degrees in seven of eight joints in Subject #1 and five of eight joints in Subject #2 (range 7.0 degrees to 52.8 degrees ). There was no change in the PPQ, 6MWT, or hand dynamometer. Data from this small pilot study suggest that treatment with adalimumab is safe, tolerable, and may improve ROM, physical function, and possibly pain, in children with MPS I or II. However, additional clinical trials are needed before this therapy should be recommended as part of clinical care.