Real-time continuous glucose monitoring among participants in the T1D Exchange clinic registry
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device use, factors associated with its use, and the relationship of CGM with diabetes outcomes (HbA1c, severe hypoglycemia [SH], and diabetic ketoacidosis [DKA]). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Survey questions related to CGM device use 1 year after enrollment in the T1D Exchange clinic registry were completed by 17,317 participants. Participants were defined as CGM users if they indicated using real-time CGM during the prior 30 days. RESULTS: Nine percent of participants used CGM (6% of children <13 years old, 4% of adolescents 13 to <18 years, 6% of young adults 18 to <26 years, and 21% of adults >/=26 years). CGM use was more likely with higher education, higher household income, private health insurance, longer duration of diabetes, and use of insulin pump (P < 0.01 all factors). CGM use was associated with lower HbA1c in children (8.3% vs. 8.6%, P < 0.001) and adults (7.7% vs. 7.9%, P < 0.001). In adults, more frequent use of CGM (>/=6 days/week) was associated with lower mean HbA1c. Only 27% of users downloaded data from their device at least once per month, and =15% of users reported downloading their device at least weekly. Among participants who used CGM at baseline, 41% had discontinued within 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: CGM use is uncommon but associated with lower HbA1c in some age-groups, especially when used more frequently. Factors associated with discontinuation and infrequent use of retrospective analysis of CGM data should be considered in developing next-generation devices and education on CGM use.
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