Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA) is a low radiation method for imaging the thoraco-lumbar spine using bone densitometers. VFA can easily be performed at the time of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, allowing integration of BMD and vertebral fracture information into clinical patient care. As VFA is a relatively new procedure, it has received limited study and heretofore has not had widespread clinical application. Consequently, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) considered the following VFA issues at the 2005 Position Development Conference: (1) indications for VFA; (2) methodology for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures using VFA; and (3) indications for additional imaging after VFA. The ISCD Official Positions with respect to the above issues, as well as the rationale and evidence used to derive these positions, are presented here.