Due to similar routes of viral transmission, many individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are also infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Each virus can cause cognitive compromise among mono-infected individuals; evidence is accumulating that HIV/HCV co-infection may have a particularly deleterious impact on cognition. We present neuropsychological data obtained from 118 HIV+ adults with advanced HIV disease, 35 of whom were co-infected with HCV, who completed a comprehensive neurocognitive evaluation. Rates of global cognitive impairment were higher among co-infected patients than among those with HIV alone (63% vs. 43%). Within the specific domains of learning and memory, co-infected individuals were significantly more likely to be impaired than were the HIV mono-infected participants. Finally, we discuss implications of these findings and potential future directions for research in this area.