Operative treatment of chest wall injuries: indications, technique, and outcomes
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Most injuries to the chest wall with residual deformity do not result in long-term respiratory dysfunction unless they are associated with pulmonary contusion. Indications for operative fixation include flail chest, reduction of pain and disability, a chest wall deformity or defect, symptomatic nonunion, thoracotomy for other indications, and open fractures. Operative indications for chest wall injuries are rare.
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