Depression predicts all-cause mortality: epidemiological evaluation from the ACCORD HRQL substudy
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OBJECTIVE: Depression affects up to 20-25% of adults with type 2 diabetes and may increase all-cause mortality, but few well-designed studies have examined the effects of depression on the full range of cardiovascular disease outcomes in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 2,053 participants in the ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) Health-Related Quality of Life substudy completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 measure of depression symptoms at baseline and 12, 36, and 48 months. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) for the time-varying impact of depression on protocol-defined clinical outcomes with and without adjustment for demographic, trial-related, clinical, and behavioral variables. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, depression was not significantly related to the ACCORD primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death, nonfatal heart attack, or stroke) (HR 1.53 [95% CI 0.85-2.73]) or to the ACCORD microvascular composite outcome (0.93 [0.53-1.62]), but all-cause mortality was significantly increased both in those with PHQ-assessed probable major depression (2.24 [1.24-4.06]) and PHQ score of >/= 10 (1.84 [1.17-2.89]). The effect of depression on all-cause mortality was not related to previous cardiovascular events or to assignment to intensive or standard glycemia control. Probable major depression (by PHQ-9) had a borderline impact on the ACCORD macrovascular end point (1.42 [0.99-2.04]). CONCLUSIONS: Depression increases the risk of all-cause mortality and may increase the risk of macrovascular events among adults with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events.
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