Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the method of choice to assess fracture risk for women 65 yr and older and men 70 yr and older. The 2007 International Society for Clinical Densitometry Official Positions had developed guidelines for assessing bone density in younger women during and after the menopausal transition and in men 50-69 yr and the 2008 National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) guidelines recommended testing in postmenopausal women younger than 65 yr and men 50-69 yr only in the presence of clinical risk factors. The purpose of the 2013 DXA Task Force was to reassess the NOF guidelines for ordering DXA in postmenopausal women younger than 65 yr and men 50-69 yr. The Task Force reviewed the literature published since the 2007 Position Development Conference and 2008 NOF, reviewing clinical decision rules such as the Osteoporosis Screening Tool and FRAX and sought to keep recommendations simple to remember and implement. Based on this assessment, the NOF guidelines were endorsed; DXA was recommended in those postmenopausal women younger than 65 yr and men 50-69 yr only in the presence of clinical risk factors for low bone mass, such as low body weight, prior fracture, high-risk medication use, or a disease or condition associated with bone loss.