Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a low-cost method of accurately identifying individuals who have clinically unrecognized or undocumented vertebral fractures at the time of bone density test. Because prevalent vertebral fractures predict subsequent fractures independent of bone mineral density and other clinical risk factors, their recognition is an important part of strategies to identify those who are at high risk of fracture, so that prevention therapies for those individuals can be implemented. The 2007 Position Development Conference developed detailed guidelines regarding the indications for acquisition of, and interpretation and reporting of densitometric VFA tests. The purpose of the 2013 VFA Task Force was to simplify the indications for VFA yet keep them evidence based. The Task Force reviewed the literature published since the 2007 Position Development Conference and developed prediction models based on 2 large cohort studies (the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures and the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study) and the densitometry database of the University of Chicago. Based on these prediction models, indications for VFA were reduced to a simplified set of criteria based on age, historical height loss, use of systemic glucocorticoid therapy, and self-reported but undocumented prior vertebral fracture.