The advent of evidence-based practice in the 1990s led to the development of processes and resources to support the use of high-quality research in the provision of health care. As the evidence-based approach to health care continues to evolve, it has become apparent that mere creation and access to scientific knowledge is not sufficient to facilitate its routine adoption in health care. Throughout any health care system, there are inherent barriers preventing the adoption and routine use of new evidence in patient care. These barriers include provider-level factors, such as knowledge and access to new evidence, as well as each provider's attitudes and beliefs around adopting and applying the evidence with their patients. Importantly, there are also health care system-level barriers that, even among willing providers, prevent the easy adoption of new evidence and routine application in patient care. In addition to barriers, there are facilitators that help promote adoption of evidence into practice. Understanding and addressing barriers and facilitators to promote adoption of evidence into practice has led to the growth of a new field known as implementation science. Successful application of implementation science in all areas of health care, including periodontology, will help bridge the gap between what are known from clinical research to be effective treatments and what treatments should be applied routinely in clinical practice. This article reviews key concepts in implementation science and how its application in periodontology can facilitate the translation of high-quality evidence into routine periodontal practice and improved patient outcomes.