STUDY OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association of self-reported poor sleep in multiple dimensions with health care costs in older men. METHODS: Participants were 1413 men (mean [SD] age 76.5 [5.7] years) enrolled in both the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) study and Medicare Fee-for-Service. Poor sleep was characterized at the baseline MrOS Sleep visit on five dimensions (satisfaction, daytime sleepiness, timing, latency, and duration). Health care costs and utilization were ascertained over 3 years of follow-up using Medicare Claims. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range [IQR]) annualized total health care costs (2018 U.S. dollars) rose from $3,616 (IQR 1,523-7,875) for those with no impaired sleep dimensions to $4,416 (IQR 1,854-11,343) for men with 2 impaired sleep dimensions and $5,819 (IQR 1,936-15,569) for those with ≥3 impaired sleep dimensions. After multivariable adjustment, the ratio of total health care costs (CR) was significantly higher for men with two (1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.48) and men with ≥3 impaired sleep dimensions (1.78, 95% CI 1.42-2.23) vs. those with no impaired sleep dimensions. After excluding 101 men who died during the 3-year follow-up period, these associations were attenuated and not significant (CR 1.22, 95% CI 0.98-1.53 for men ≥3 impaired sleep dimensions vs. none). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported poor sleep on multiple dimensions is associated with higher subsequent total health care costs in older men, but this may be due to higher mortality and increased health care costs toward the end of life among those with poor sleep health.