Dairy protein but not plant protein was associated with bone strength of the radius and tibia in older men. These results are consistent with previous results in women and support similar findings related to fracture outcomes. Bone strength differences were largely due to thickness and area of the bone cortex. INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine the association of protein intake by source (dairy, non-dairy animal, plant) with bone strength and bone microarchitecture among older men. METHODS: We used data from 1016 men (mean 84.3 years) who attended the Year 14 exam of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, completed a food frequency questionnaire (500-5000 kcal/day), were not taking androgen or androgen agonists, and had high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans of the distal radius and distal or diaphyseal tibia. Protein was expressed as percentage of total energy intake (TEI); mean +/- SD for TEI = 1548 +/- 607 kcal/day and for total protein = 16.2 +/- 2.9%TEI. We used linear regression with standardized HR-pQCT parameters as dependent variables and adjusted for age, limb length, center, education, race/ethnicity, marital status, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity level, corticosteroids use, supplement use (calcium and vitamin D), and osteoporosis medications. RESULTS: Higher dairy protein intake was associated with higher estimated failure load at the distal radius and distal tibia [radius effect size = 0.17 (95% CI 0.07, 0.27), tibia effect size = 0.13 (95% CI 0.03, 0.23)], while higher non-dairy animal protein was associated with higher failure load at only the distal radius. Plant protein intake was not associated with failure load at any site. CONCLUSION: The association between protein intake and bone strength varied by source of protein. These results support a link between dairy protein intake and skeletal health, but an intervention study is needed to evaluate causality.