Structures endangered during minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of the upper extremity
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Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis is a surgical technique that is becoming increasingly common because radiographic images and implant technologies advance in capabilities. It is imperative for surgeons to enhance their understanding of the surgical anatomy related to new approaches for fracture fixation. While performing minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis, there is a danger of injuring structures in the common percutaneous and submuscular pathways. We describe the critical anatomical structures in these pathways and tips for injury avoidance when operating on the clavicle, scapula, humerus, and wrist.
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