Little research has examined the needs of parents with opioid use disorder (OUD) who are receiving medications for OUD (MOUDs), which is striking given growing rates of OUD among parents. Objective: The current study expands the literature by examining psychiatric, psychosocial, and parenting-related functioning, as well as 12-month MOUD treatment retention among parents versus non-parents participating in a buprenorphine program at an academic family medicine residency clinic. Methods: Patients (N = 144; 61 parents) completed measures of psychiatric and psychosocial functioning at the first MOUD visit; parents also completed measures of parental functioning. Results: Parents endorsed less anxiety and loneliness, as well as greater social connection, life satisfaction, and life meaning. Parents were also older, more likely to be female, of a race other than white, married, employed, and had higher incomes. Although parents endorsed high levels of parental self-agency and strong bonds with children, many also reported elevated parental shame. Among parents, higher levels of shame were also associated with higher depression, anxiety, anger, stress, and loneliness. Over 25% of parents reported that a child lived with friends/relatives over 3 months, and 11% noted a child having been removed from the home by child protective services. Finally, parents were more likely to be retained in treatment at 12 months, although this finding was non-significant after controlling for covariates. Conclusions/Importance: These findings illustrate the needs experienced by parents engaged in MOUD treatment, which may prove valuable in informing policy, program development, and treatment approaches for parents with OUD.