OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if serum perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) were associated with abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). METHODS: We used weighted logistic regression to investigate the gender-specific association between PFAS serum levels and AAC more than or equal to 6 from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the thoraco-lumbar spine from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014 survey participants aged more than or equal to 40 years. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounding, none of log-transformed perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), or perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were significantly associated with AAC for either men or women (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 0.80 to 1.33, P > 0.05 each). For PFOA and PFOS, the association was positive only in women (although the difference was not statistically significant in either case). CONCLUSION: These findings do not provide general support for a relationship of PFAS exposure to AAC, although the results show a need for gender-specific consideration in a larger dataset.