Inflammation, attention, and processing speed in patients with breast cancer before and after chemotherapy Journal Article uri icon
Overview
abstract
  • BACKGROUND: Inflammation may contribute to cognitive difficulties in patients with breast cancer. We tested 2 hypotheses: inflammation is elevated in patients with breast cancer vs noncancer control participants and inflammation in patients is associated with worse attention and processing speed over the course of chemotherapy. METHODS: Serum cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, 6, 8, 10; tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and soluble receptors [sTNFRI, II]) were measured in 519 females with breast cancer before and after chemotherapy and 338 females without cancer serving as control participants. Attention and processing speed were measured by Rapid Visual Processing (RVP), Backward Counting (BCT), and Trail Making-A (TMT-A) tests. Linear regression models examined patient vs control cytokines and receptor levels, adjusting for covariates. Linear regression models also examined relationships between patient cytokines and receptor levels and test performance, adjusting for age, body mass index, anxiety, depression, cognitive reserve, and chemotherapy duration. Statistical tests were 2-sided (α = .05). RESULTS: sTNFRI and sTNFRII increased over time in patients relative to controls, whereas IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 decreased. Prechemotherapy, higher IL-8 associated with worse BCT (β = 0.610, SE = 0.241, P = .01); higher IL-4 (β = -1.098, SE = 0.516, P = .03) and IL-10 (β = -0.835, SE = 0.414, P = .04) associated with better TMT-A. Postchemotherapy, higher IL-8 (β = 0.841, SE = 0.260, P = .001), sTNFRI (β = 6.638, SE = 2.208, P = .003), and sTNFRII (β = 0.913, SE = 0.455, P = .045) associated with worse BCT; higher sTNFRII also associated with worse RVP (β = -1.316, SE = 0.587, P = .03). At prechemotherapy, higher IL-4 predicted RVP improvement over time (β = 0.820, SE = 0.336, P = .02); higher sTNFRI predicted worse BCT over time (β = 5.566, SE = 2.367, P = .02). Longitudinally, increases in IL-4 associated with BCT improvement (β = -0.564, SE = 0.253, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Generally, worse attention and processing speed were associated with higher inflammatory cytokines and receptors and lower anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients; future confirmatory studies are needed.

  • Link to Article
    publication date
  • 2022
  • Research
    keywords
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chemotherapy
  • Drugs and Drug Therapy
  • Additional Document Info
    volume
  • 114
  • issue
  • 5