We have previously shown that abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), a marker of advanced atherosclerotic disease, is weakly associated with reduced hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD). To better understand the vascular-bone health relationship, we explored this association with other key determinants of whole-bone strength and fracture risk at peripheral skeletal sites. This study examined associations of AAC with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-assessed total, cortical and trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone structure and strength of the radius and tibia among 648 community-dwelling older women (mean ± SD age 79.7 ± 2.5 years). We assessed associations between cross-sectional (2003) and longitudinal (progression from 1998/1999-2003) AAC assessed on lateral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images with cross-sectional (2003) and longitudinal (change from 2003 to 2005) pQCT bone measures at the 4% radius and tibia, and 15% radius. Partial Spearman correlations (adjusted for age, BMI, calcium treatment) revealed no cross-sectional associations between AAC and any pQCT bone measures. AAC progression was not associated with any bone measure after adjusting for multiple comparisons, despite trends for inverse correlations with total bone area at the 4% radius (r(s) = - 0.088, p = 0.044), 4% tibia (r(s) = - 0.085, p = 0.052) and 15% radius (r(s) = - 0.101, p = 0.059). Neither AAC in 2003 nor AAC progression were associated with subsequent 2-year pQCT bone changes. ANCOVA showed no differences in bone measures between women with and without AAC or AAC progression, nor across categories of AAC extent. Collectively, these finding suggest that peripheral bone density and structure, or its changes with age, are not associated with central vascular calcification in older women.