Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee is a relatively rare disorder in young athletes that can lead to premature osteoarthritis. It may be caused by multiple factors, including repetitive stress, local ischemia, aberrant endochondral ossification of the subarticular physis, and hereditary disposition. Nonoperative treatment is typically attempted for patients with open physes, stable lesions, and minimal symptoms. Operative treatment is offered to patients with closed physes, unstable lesions, mechanical symptoms, and failure of nonoperative treatment. Customized rehabilitation and return to sport programs are important for successful outcomes regardless of treatment type.