PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the current state of knowledge regarding axial plane deformities in patellofemoral instability, indications and techniques for treatment of those deformities, and outcomes following treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: There is opportunity for more information in the literature on all aspects of axial plane deformities in patellofemoral instability. This includes how to assess axial plane deformities on imaging, what is normal and what is an appropriate goal for correction, what techniques are best used depending on the deformity or concomitant pathology, and larger and more discriminating studies on outcomes. Rotational deformity of both the tibia and femur is an important risk factor to consider as a cause of patellar instability. Recent research has shown that surgical correction of these deformities on either the femoral or tibial side can have a positive effect on outcome in terms of patellar instability and knee pain. Further research, however, is warranted to determine what are normal values for femoral version and tibial torsion, and at what values surgical intervention is warranted.