OBJECTIVE: Decreased insulin sensitivity and impairment of β-cell function predate and predict development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Time-restricted eating (TRE) might have a benefit for these parameters. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate this possibility. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing 12 weeks of TRE (8-hour eating window) to unrestricted eating (non-TRE) was performed. Participants were adults with overweight or obesity and without diabetes. Two-hour oral glucose tolerance testing was performed at baseline and end-intervention. Glucose tolerance test-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and β-cell function were compared between groups. RESULTS: Participants (17 women/3 men with mean [SD] age 45.5 [12.1] years and BMI 34.1 [7.5] kg/m(2) ) with a prolonged eating window (15.4 [0.9] hours) were randomized to TRE (n = 11) or non-TRE (n = 9). The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), Stumvoll index, Avignon index, insulinogenic index, insulin area under the curve/glucose area under the curve, and oral disposition index did not differ between the TRE and non-TRE groups at end-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with overweight or obesity and without diabetes, TRE did not significantly alter insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or β-cell function over a 12-week intervention. Whether TRE is beneficial in adults with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus warrants further investigation.