Epidemiology of vertebral fractures [review]
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Vertebral fractures are one of the most common fractures associated with skeletal fragility and can cause as much morbidity as hip fractures. However, the epidemiology of vertebral fractures differs from that of osteoporotic fractures at other skeletal sites in important ways, largely because only one quarter to one-third of vertebral fractures are recognized clinically at the time of their occurrence and otherwise require lateral spine imaging to be recognized. This article first reviews the prevalence and incidence of clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures in populations across the globe and secular trends in the incidence of vertebral fracture over time. Next, associations of vertebral fractures with measures of bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture are reviewed followed by associations of vertebral fracture with various textural measures of trabecular bone, including trabecular bone score. Finally, the article reviews clinical risk factors for vertebral fracture and the association of vertebral fractures with morbidity, mortality, and other subsequent adverse health outcomes.
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