Fracture risk prediction by non-BMD DXA measures: the 2015 ISCD Official Positions part 1: hip geometry
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Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is the current imaging procedure of choice to assess fracture risk. However, BMD is only one of the factors that explain bone strength or resistance to fracture. Other factors include bone microarchitecture and macroarchitecture. We now have the ability to assess some of these non-BMD parameters from a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry image. Available measurements include various measurements of hip geometry including hip structural analysis, hip axis length, and neck-shaft angle. At the 2015 Position Development Conference, the International Society of Clinical Densitometry established official positions for the clinical utility of measurements of hip geometry. We present the official positions approved by an expert panel after careful review of the recommendations and evidence prepared by an independent task force. Each question addressed by the task force is presented followed by the official position with the associated medical evidence and rationale.
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