BACKGROUND: The evolving surgical skills education paradigm in orthopaedics has generated a strong demand for validated educational tools and methodologies. This study aimed to confirm that a one-on-one faculty coaching review of the head-mounted video recording of a resident's surgical performance on a validated articular fracture simulation trainer would substantially improve subsequent performance. METHODS: Fifteen first-year or second-year orthopaedic surgery residents reduced and fixed a standardized intra-articular tibial plafond fracture model under fluoroscopic guidance. Their performances were recorded by a head-mounted video camera. Prior to repeating the procedure six weeks later, eight subjects (the intervention group) reviewed the video of their performance with an orthopaedic traumatologist, and seven subjects (the control group) did not. Cohort performance was compared with respect to task duration, number of fluoroscopic images, and scores on the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) as evaluated by fellowship-trained orthopaedic traumatologists blinded to the residents' year in training and prior surgical experience. RESULTS: The initial performance OSATS scores were not significantly different (p >/= 0.05) between the control and intervention groups. Assessments of their repeat performance showed a significant net interval improvement (p < 0.05) in OSATS scores in the intervention group (mean [and standard deviation], 21 +/- 8 points) compared with the control group (6 +/- 3 points). The mean fluoroscopy utilization had a significant net decrease (p < 0.05) in the intervention group (-5.4 +/- 11.7 points) compared with the control group (5.3 +/- 7.0 points). Task duration in the repeat performance was similar between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Personalized video-based feedback improved performance on a standardized articular fracture trainer for first-year and second-year residents. The described technique may further enhance resident surgical skills education.