AIM: Low-dose aspirin has been hypothesized as being a potential host modulatory agent for periodontitis treatment. We investigated the relationship between low-dose aspirin use and periodontitis prevalence in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012. METHODS: We analysed n = 2335 adult men and women who received a full-mouth periodontal examination and responded to an aspirin use questionnaire. Periodontal disease was defined as severe, moderate or mild according to established case definitions. Mean full-mouth probing depth, attachment loss and tooth loss were also considered. Low-dose aspirin was defined by any self-reported, physician prescribed aspirin use of =162 mg/day. RESULTS: Participants had mean age (SE) 55.8 years (0.42). The prevalences of periodontitis and low-dose aspirin use were 49.5% and 25% respectively. In multivariable logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, race, socioeconomic variables and comorbidities, the odds ratios [95%CI] for moderate or severe periodontitis among low-dose aspirin users (versus non-users) were: 0.91 [0.56-1.50] and 1.06 [0.74-1.50] respectively. Results were unchanged among participants without diabetes or coronary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this cross-sectional study we conclude that low-dose aspirin is not associated with prevalent periodontal status in a nationally representative sample of US adults.