Background: In the 2015-2016 season, quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and both trivalent and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) were available in the United States. Methods: This study, conducted according to a test-negative case-control design, enrolled children aged 2-17 years presenting to outpatient settings with fever and respiratory symptoms for <5 days at 8 sites across the United States between 30 November 2015 and 15 April 2016. A nasal swab was obtained for reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for influenza, and influenza vaccination was verified in the medical record or vaccine registry. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated using a logistic regression model. Results: Of 1012 children retained for analysis, most children (59%) were unvaccinated, 10% received LAIV, and 31% received IIV. Influenza A (predominantly antigenically similar to the A/California/7/2009 strain) was detected in 14% and influenza B (predominantly a B/Victoria lineage) in 10%. For all influenza, VE was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%-69%) for LAIV and 65% (48%-76%) for IIV. VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 50% (95% CI, -2% to 75%) for LAIV and 71% (51%-82%) for IIV. The odds ratio for vaccine failure with RT-PCR-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 was 1.71 (95% CI, 0.78-3.73) in LAIV versus IIV recipients. Conclusions: LAIV and IIV demonstrated effectiveness against any influenza among children aged 2-17 years in 2015-2016. When compared to all unvaccinated children, VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was significant for IIV but not LAIV. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01997450.