OBJECTIVE: We explored associations between organizational factors (size, sector, leadership support, and organizational capacity) and implementation of occupational safety and health (OSH) and worksite health promotion (WHP) programs in smaller businesses. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey of human resource managers of 117 smaller businesses (<750 employees) and analyzed factors associated with implementation of OSH and WHP among these sites using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Implementation of OSH, but not WHP activities, was related to industry sector (P = 0.003). Leadership support was positively associated with OSH activities (P < 0.001), but negatively associated with WHP implementation. Organizational capacity (budgets, staffing, and committee involvement) was associated with implementation of both OSH and WHP. Size was related to neither. CONCLUSIONS: Leadership support and specifically allocated resources reflecting that support are important factors for implementing OSH and WHP in smaller organizations.