BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids are commonly used in chemotherapy regimens and may lead to hyperglycemia and increased infection rates. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis on 1781 patients who received intravenous chemotherapy with glucocorticoids between 2010 and 2015. Data was obtained using electronic medical record, billing modules, and tumor registry. We compared new infections and survival between patients with and without diabetes, after adjusting for demographic and cancer-related variables. RESULTS: In the first 12months following chemotherapy, patients with diabetes (n=330) had higher rates of hospital admissions (70.9% vs 57.4%), more infection-related admissions (37.0% vs 29.2%), and increased rates of new infections (61.2% vs 49.2%) when compared to patients without diabetes (n=1451). One-year survival was worse among patients with diabetes (67.3% vs 78.3%), and in patients with at least one elevated glucose following chemotherapy (60.8% vs 78.5). After adjusting for cancer stage, age, and gender, diabetes history increased the odds of dying within one year after diagnosis by 86% (OR 1.86, 95% CI (1.37-2.52)) and of new infections by 68% (OR 1.68, 95% CI (1.26-2.24)). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with cancer receiving intravenous chemotherapy with glucocorticoids we demonstrate those with diabetes have more hospital admissions, increased rates of infections, and worse survival.