Introduction: Low back pain is a leading disability worldwide; however, it is not often the result of a serious underlying condition such as a tumor. As a result, diagnosis of a serious underlying cause of low back pain may be delayed, such as in this case. Case presentation: We describe a case of a man presenting with low back pain, who was eventually diagnosed with solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP) causing spinal cord compression from approximately T7-T9. The patient was classified as T8 ASIA C-Incomplete Paraplegia. He underwent an emergency T7-T9 open posterior laminectomy and resection of the epidural mass/tumor. Following an intensive course of rehabilitation treatment, the patient progressed to ASIA D. Discussion: Although SBP of the spine is rare, back or neck pain is a common initial presentation. This case is unique in that we provide a detailed description of both medical and rehabilitation diagnosis and treatment. We also suggest that persistent back pain warrants complete MRI spinal imaging to provide proper diagnosis and prompt treatment for cases with a serious underlying condition.