Long-term follow-up of moderately hypercholesterolemic hypertensive patients following randomization to pravastatin vs usual care: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT)
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The authors conducted a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial, in which they assigned well-controlled hypertensive participants aged 55 years and older with moderate hypercholesterolemia to receive pravastatin (n=5170) or usual care (n=5185) for 4 to 8 years, when trial therapy was discontinued. Passive surveillance using national databases to ascertain deaths and hospitalizations continued for a total follow-up of 8 to 13 years to assess whether mortality and morbidity differences persisted or new differences developed. During the post-trial period, fatal and nonfatal outcomes were available for 98% and 64% of participants, respectively. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the secondary outcomes included cardiovascular mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure, cardiovascular disease, and end-stage renal disease. No significant differences appeared in mortality for pravastatin vs usual care (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.03) or other secondary outcomes. Similar to the previously reported in-trial result, there was a significant treatment effect for CHD in black patients (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.98). However, the in-trial result showing a significant treatment by race effect did not remain significant during the entire follow-up (P=.08). These findings are consistent with evidence from other large trials that show statins prevent CHD and add evidence that they are effective for CHD prevention in black patients.
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