Creatinine clearance and blood pressure: a 34-year circadian study
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The first circadian study of the 361st Medical Laboratory, USAR, was conducted in May 1969 during the Annual Military Training at Brook Army Hospital, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. The study was approved by the Surgeon General, 5th US Army, and was designed to establish a circadian database for 63 medically relevant variables of 13 young members of the Unit. The subsequent studies, all in the month of May, in 1979, 1988, 1993,1998, and 2003, followed the same protocol and were conducted at Edward Hines Jr., Veterans Administration Hospital, after approval by Human Studies Subcommittees. Since a reduction in Creatinine Clearance (CrCl) to the level of 60 ml/min/1.73m2 signals the onset of kidney malfunction and since a concurrent increase in blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mm Hg, contributes greatly to an unfavorable cardiovascular prognosis, it seemed prudent to examine possible changes in these and in other relevant variables in a group of young Army men, which may have developed over a 34 year period of time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirteen US Army male volunteers (23-27y of age) served as subjects in the 1969 study. A majority of these men, two additional Army men and two non-military subjects, participated in subsequent studies: 1979 (7,2,1), 1988 (8,2,1), 1993 (5,4,1), 1998 (7,2,2), 2003 (7,2,1). In each study, subjects were admitted to a hospital ward, were given medical examination including a 12-lead electrocardiogram and followed the same Protocol. Lights "OUT" at 22:30h and "ON" at 06:30h. The meals, hospital 2400-calorie diets, were served at 17:30, 07:30 and at 13:30h. Vital signs were measured immediately after each 3h urine collections, around the clock, and bloods were collected every 3h. Blood, plasma, serum, saliva and urines were analyzed for numerous analytes including creatinine, using automated laboratory systems. Kidney functions were assessed using the measured and estimated glomerular filtration rates. RESULTS: Over the 34y study span, 16 men provided sixty-one 24h profiles for CrCl-related variables (urine volume, creatinine, and serum creatinine) and fifty-eight profiles for BP. Using all normalized data, a significant circadian rhythm was found for each of these variables. Significant circadian variations in SBP, DBP, serum and urine creatinine, and urine volume, were evident with peak levels, on average, occurring in the evening hours. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy subjects, age was associated with an increase in SBP and urine volume and with a decrease in urine creatinine. In diabetic subjects, aging was associated with increases in both blood pressure and Creatinine Clearance. It is interesting to note that for the 3 subjects who at a later date developed diabetes, the CrCl levels were higher than the 5 age-matched controls during each study year, over the entire 34y observation span, including the period prior to diagnosis. Clin Ter 2008; 159(6):409-417.