Continuous glucose monitoring reveals different glycemic responses of moderate- vs high-carbohydrate lunch meals in people with type 2 diabetes
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This single-center, meal-intervention, crossover study was conducted to determine the glycemic response to fixed meals with varying carbohydrate content. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to document the glycemic response. Participants were 14 people with type 2 diabetes on metformin only. On 4 consecutive days in March or July 2008, study participants consumed a fixed breakfast and one of two test meals (lunch) provided in random order. The two lunch types varied only in carbohydrate content; the protein, fat, fiber, and glycemic index were similar. They consumed no caloric food or beverages for 4 hours after each meal. Consuming double the carbohydrate content did not double the glycemic response variables, yet most were substantially different in glucose value (mg/dL) or minutes. General linear model analyses revealed substantial differences for peak glucose, change from baseline glucose to peak, time to return to preprandial glucose, 4-hour glucose area under the curve, and 4-hour mean glucose. Continuous glucose monitoring data provided a robust description of the glycemic response to the two meals. Such data can help improve postprandial glucose levels through more informed nutrition recommendations and synchronization of food intake, diabetes medication, and/or physical activity.
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