BACKGROUND: The Internet provides us with tools (user metrics or paradata) to evaluate how users interact with online interventions. Analysis of these paradata can lead to design improvements. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the qualities of online participant engagement in an online intervention. We analyzed the paradata in a randomized controlled trial of alternative versions of an online intervention designed to promote consumption of fruit and vegetables. METHODS: Volunteers were randomized to 1 of 3 study arms involving several online sessions. We created 2 indirect measures of breadth and depth to measure different dimensions and dynamics of program engagement based on factor analysis of paradata measures of Web pages visited and time spent online with the intervention materials. Multiple regression was used to assess influence of engagement on retention and change in dietary intake. RESULTS: Baseline surveys were completed by 2513 enrolled participants. Of these, 86.3% (n = 2168) completed the follow-up surveys at 3 months, 79.6% (n = 2027) at 6 months, and 79.4% (n = 1995) at 12 months. The 2 tailored intervention arms exhibited significantly more engagement than the untailored arm (P < .01). Breadth and depth measures of engagement were significantly associated with completion of follow-up surveys (odds ratios [OR] = 4.11 and 2.12, respectively, both P values < .001). The breadth measure of engagement was also significantly positively associated with a key study outcome, the mean increase in fruit and vegetable consumption (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: By exploring participants' exposures to online interventions, paradata are valuable in explaining the effects of tailoring in increasing participant engagement in the intervention. Controlling for intervention arm, greater engagement is also associated with retention of participants and positive change in a key outcome of the intervention, dietary change. This paper demonstrates the utility of paradata capture and analysis for evaluating online health interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00169312; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00169312 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5u8sSr0Ty).