Biomarker-calibrated dietary energy and protein intake associations with diabetes risk among postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative
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BACKGROUND: Self-report of dietary energy and protein intakes has been shown to be systematically and differentially underreported. OBJECTIVE: We assessed and compared the association of diabetes among postmenopausal women with biomarker-calibrated and uncalibrated dietary energy and protein intakes from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). DESIGN: The analyses were performed for 74,155 participants of various race-ethnicities from the Women's Health Initiative. Uncalibrated and calibrated energy and protein intakes from FFQs were assessed for associations with incident diabetes by using HR estimates based on Cox regression. RESULTS: A 20% increment in uncalibrated energy consumption was associated with increased diabetes risk (HR) of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.05), 2.41 (95% CI: 2.06, 2.82) with biomarker calibration, and 1.30 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.76) after adjustment for BMI. A 20% increment in uncalibrated protein (g/d) resulted in an HR of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.07), 1.82 (95% CI: 1.56, 2.12) with calibration, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.28) with adjustment for BMI. A 20% increment in uncalibrated protein density (% of energy from protein) resulted in an HR of 1.13 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.17), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.37) with calibration, and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.32) with adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Higher protein and total energy intakes (calibrated) appear to be associated with a substantially increased diabetes risk that may be mediated by an increase in body mass over time. Diet-disease associations without correction of self-reported measurement error should be viewed with caution. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.
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