BACKGROUND: Some findings from observational studies have suggested that recent receipt of live vaccines may be associated with decreased non-vaccine-targeted infection risk and mortality. Our objective was to estimate risk of non-vaccine-targeted infections based on most recent vaccine type (live vaccines only, inactivated vaccines only or both concurrently) received in US children 11-23 months of age. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study within the Vaccine Safety Datalink. We examined electronic health record and immunization data from children born in 2003-2013 who received 3 diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines before their first birthday. We modeled vaccine type as a time-varying exposure and estimated risk of non-vaccine-targeted infections identified in emergency department and inpatient settings, adjusting for multiple confounders. RESULTS: Among 428,608 children, 48.9% were female, 4.9% had >/=1 immunization visit with live vaccines only and 10.3% had a non-vaccine-targeted infection. In males, lower risk of non-vaccine-targeted infections was observed following last receipt of live vaccines only or live and inactivated vaccines concurrently as compared with last receipt of inactivated vaccines only [live vaccines-only adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.94; live and inactivated vaccines concurrently aHR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88-0.94]. Among females, last receipt of live and inactivated vaccines concurrently was significantly associated with non-vaccine-targeted infection risk (aHR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91-0.97 vs. last receipt of inactivated vaccines only). CONCLUSIONS: We observed modest associations between live vaccine receipt and non-vaccine-targeted infections. In this observational study, multiple factors, including healthcare-seeking behavior, may have influenced results.