Selective tracheal gas insufflation during partial liquid ventilation improves lung function in an animal model of unilateral acute lung injury
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OBJECTIVE: During unilateral lung injury, we hypothesized that we can improve global lung function by applying selective tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) to the injured lung. DESIGN: Prospective, interventional animal study. SETTING: Animal laboratory in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Adult mixed-breed dogs. INTERVENTIONS: In six anesthetized dogs, left saline lung lavage was performed until PaO(2)/FiO(2) fell below 100 torr (13.3 kPa). The dogs were then reintubated with a Univent single-lumen endotracheal tube, which incorporates an internal catheter to provide TGI. In a consecutive manner, we studied 1) the application of 10 cm H(2)O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP); 2) instillation of 10 mL/kg of perflubron (Liquivent) to the left lung at a PEEP level of 10 cm H(2)O (PLV+PEEP 10 initial); 3) application of selective TGI (PLV+TGI) while maintaining end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) constant; 4) PLV+TGI at reduced tidal volume (VT); and 5) PLV+PEEP 10 final. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Application of PLV+PEEP 10 initial did not change gas exchange, lung mechanics, or hemodynamics. PLV+TGI improved PaO(2)/FiO(2) from 189 +/- 13 torr (25.2 +/- 1.7 kPa) to 383 +/- 44 torr (51.1 +/- 5.9 kPa) (p <.01) and decreased PaCO(2) from 55 +/- 5 torr (7.3 +/- 0.7 kPa) to 30 +/- 2 torr (4.0 +/- 0.3 kPa) (p <.01). During ventilation with PLV+TGI, reducing VT from 15 mL/kg to 3.5 mL/kg while keeping EELV constant decreased PaO(2)/FiO(2) to 288 +/- 49 torr (38.4 +/- 6.5 kPa) (not significant) and normalized PaCO(2). At this stage, end-inspiratory plateau pressure decreased from 19.2 +/- 0.7 cm H(2)O to 13.6 +/- 0.7 cm H(2)O (p <.01). At PLV+PEEP 10 final, measurements returned to those observed at previous baseline stage (PLV+PEEP 10 initial). CONCLUSIONS: During unilateral lung injury, PLV with a moderate PEEP did not improve oxygenation, TGI superimposed on PLV improved gas exchange, and combination of TGI and PLV allowed a 77% reduction in VT without any adverse effect on PaCO(2).
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