BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported an increase in Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incidence in young children, highlighting the need to better understand risk factors for the development of IBD. Licensed for use in infants in 2006, the oral, live-attenuated rotavirus vaccine has biologic plausibility for instigating inflammation of the gut mucosa as a pathway to immune dysregulation. METHODS: Over a ten-year period, we evaluated incidence of IBD within a cohort of children under the age of ten, enrolled in seven integrated healthcare delivery systems. We conducted a nested case-control study to evaluate the association between rotavirus vaccination and IBD using conditional logistic regression. Cases were confirmed via medical record review and matched to non-IBD controls on date of birth, sex, and study site. RESULTS: Among 2.4 million children under the age of 10 years, 333 cases of IBD were identified with onset between 2007 and 2016. The crude incidence of IBD increased slightly over the study period (p-value for trend = 0.046). Of the 333 cases, 227 (68%) were born prior to 2007. Forty-two cases born in 2007 or later, with continuous enrollment since birth were included in the case-control study and matched to 210 controls. The adjusted odds ratio for any rotavirus vaccination in IBD cases, compared to matched controls, was 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.19-2.65). CONCLUSIONS: Data from this large pediatric cohort demonstrate a small overall increase in IBD incidence in young children over a ten-year period. The data suggest that rotavirus vaccination is not associated with development of IBD.