This report provides recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of vaccine against infection with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. Information on vaccination for seasonal influenza has been published previously (CDC. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], 2009. MMWR 2009;58[No. RR-8]). Vaccines against novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection have not yet been licensed; however, licensed vaccine is expected to be available by mid-October 2009. On July 29, 2009, ACIP reviewed epidemiologic and clinical data to determine which population groups should be targeted initially for vaccination. ACIP also considered the projected vaccine supply likely to be available when vaccine is first available and the expected increase in vaccine availability during the following 6 months. These recommendations are intended to provide vaccination programs and providers with information to assist in planning and to alert providers and the public about target groups comprising an estimated 159 million persons who are recommended to be first to receive influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine. The guiding principle of these recommendations is to vaccinate as many persons as possible as quickly as possible. Vaccination efforts should begin as soon as vaccine is available. State and local health officials and vaccination providers should make decisions about vaccine administration and distribution in accordance with state and local conditions. Highlights of these recommendations include 1) the identification of five initial target groups for vaccination efforts (pregnant women, persons who live with or provide care for infants aged <6 months, health-care and emergency medical services personnel, children and young adults aged 6 months-24 years, and persons aged 25-64 years who have medical conditions that put them at higher risk for influenza-related complications), 2) establishment of priority for a subset of persons within the initial target groups in the event that initial vaccine availability is unable to meet demand, and 3) guidance on use of vaccine in other adult population groups as vaccine availability increases. Vaccination and health-care providers should be alert to announcements and additional information from state and local health departments and CDC concerning vaccination against novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Additional information is available from state and local health departments and from CDC's influenza website (http://www.cdc.gov/flu).