The purpose of this pilot study was to assess Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients' adherence to, beliefs about, and barriers to oral anticancer agents (OAC) using brief self-report measures in community-based cancer clinics. Patients completed a structured interview including a health literacy assessment, a Brief Medication Questionnaire, two single-item self-report adherence questions, and the Medications Adherence Reasons Scale. Of the 86 participants, 88.4% were white; 55.8% male; mean age, 58.7 years; and 22.1% had limited health literacy. Nonadherence (missing at least one dose in the last week) was reported by 18.6% of participants and associated (p < 0.003) with less-than-excellent perceived ability to take CML medications (16.3%). Black participants reported more difficulty taking CML medications than white participants (28.6% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.053). Among all participants, 43.0% reported their CML medicine was ineffective and 24.4% that taking CML pills was somewhat to very hard. The most common reasons for missing a dose were simply missed it (24.4%) and side effects (18.6%). Most patients perceived their ability to take CML medication was good to excellent, yet nearly one in five reported missing at least one dose in the last week. Brief, no-cost self-report assessments to screen CML patients' OAC adherence, barriers, and beliefs could facilitate counseling in busy community cancer clinics.