Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination completion rates in Asian-American populations are substantially lower than most White Americans. Our objective was to identify the knowledge, perceptions, and decision-making processes about HPV vaccinations in the Hmong population, an Asian-American group with increased risks of HPV-related cancers. We conducted eight focus groups with Hmong adolescents (n = 12) and parents (n = 13) to learn about barriers, facilitators, and decision-making processes regarding general vaccinations and the HPV vaccine. The focus group results were analyzed using thematic analysis, informed by the socioecological model and asset lens. Findings showed that at the individual level, Hmong adolescents and parents had low HPV and HPV vaccine awareness levels (barrier) and strong desires to learn about HPV and the HPV vaccine (facilitator). Community-level barriers included salient narratives about traumatic experiences with vaccines and vaccine research, while facilitators included strong community connections. At the institutional level, barriers included structural constraints in health care settings, while facilitators included ease of obtaining vaccines at school-based clinics and provider authoritative decision-making. Additionally, a range of decision-making processes between parents, adolescents, and providers were present, with parents expressing a strong appeal to engage in more shared decision-making with providers. A linguistically and culturally specific HPV educational program for Hmong adolescents and parents could address the barriers and build on facilitators and assets to promote HPV vaccine uptake in this growing Asian-American community.