Dementia spectrum disorders (DSDs) are a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. DSDs encompass a large group of medical conditions that all ultimately lead to major functional and cognitive decline and disability. Demographic and comorbid conditions that are associated with DSDs have significant prognostic and preventive implications. In this article, we will discuss the global and regional burden of DSDs and cover key demographic and clinical conditions linked with DSDs. In the absence of disease-modifying treatments, the role of primary prevention has become more prominent. Implementation of preventive measures requires an understanding of predisposing and exacerbating factors.