INTRODUCTION: Data on the association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and major hemorrhage in older adults are lacking. METHODS: We used data from a double-blind randomized controlled trial of aspirin in persons aged ≥ 70 years with prospective capture of bleeding events, including hemorrhagic stroke and clinically significant bleeding. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and/or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥ 3 mg/mmol (26.6 mg/g). We compared bleeding rates in those with and without CKD, undertook multivariable analyses, and explored effect modification with aspirin. RESULTS: Of 19,114 participants, 17,976 (94.0%) had CKD status recorded, of whom 4952 (27.5%) had CKD. Participants with CKD had an increased rate of major bleeding events compared with those without CKD (10.4/1000 vs. 6.3/1000 person-years [py], respectively) and increased bleeding risk (risk ratio [RR] 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40, 1.90 for eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and RR (2.10; 95% CI: 1.70, 2.50) for albuminuria. In adjusted analyses, CKD was associated with a 35% increased risk of bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.62; P < 0.001). Other risk factors were older age, hypertension, smoking, and aspirin use. There was no differential effect of aspirin on bleeding by CKD status (test of interaction P = 0.65). CONCLUSION: CKD is independently associated with an increased risk of major hemorrhage in older adults. Increased awareness of modifiable risk factors such as discontinuation of unnecessary aspirin, blood pressure control, and smoking cessation in this group is warranted.