PURPOSE: Bone pain is a common adverse effect of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factors filgrastim and pegfilgrastim. However, the incidence of reported bone pain varies and therapies to mitigate this adverse effect are limited to case reports and one randomized controlled trial. The purpose of this study was to describe pegfilgrastim use, the incidence and treatment of bone pain, and rate of severe or febrile neutropenia among cancer patients receiving pegfilgrastim at a metropolitan, hospital-based, community cancer center. METHODS: This retrospective chart review included the first 100 adult oncology patients who received at least one dose of pegfilgrastim from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012. Descriptive analyses were used to evaluate the primary and secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Of the identified cases, 69 cancer patients were evaluable. Most patients (74%) received pegfilgrastim for primary prophylaxis. Pegfilgrastim-associated bone pain occurred in 19% and loratadine was the most common medication used to treat it. Among the patients who received pegfilgrastim for primary prophylaxis, 8% were hospitalized for febrile neutropenia. Among those hospitalized for febrile neutropenia, 64% had not received pegfilgrastim for primary prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: Pegfilgrastim is commonly used for primary prophylaxis during the first cycle of chemotherapy. Hospitalizations for febrile neutropenia occurred most commonly among patients without primary prophylaxis. Pegfilgrastim-associated bone pain occurred in a similar percentage, as reported in randomized controlled trials but less than that reported by survey. Loratadine was the most commonly employed medication to mitigate this adverse effect.