OBJECTIVES: To describe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among adult privately insured women including variation in coverage by race/ethnicity. METHODS: This cross-sectional, observational study included women 18-26 years of age with continuous enrollment in a U.S. Midwestern health insurance plan and at least one visit to a plan affiliated practice. Vaccination data came from insurance claims and the electronic medical record. Primary outcomes were: receipt of at least 1 HPV vaccine (HPV1) and completion of the 3-dose HPV vaccine series (HPV3). Coverage was described for the entire cohort and stratified by race/ethnicity. For a subset of women, automated data was compared to personal recall. RESULTS: As of June 2010, among 2546 privately insured women 18-26 years, 72.7% had received their first HPV vaccine and 57.9% completed the 3-dose series. Compared to white women, African American and Asian women had significantly lower coverage for HPV1 and HPV3. There was 94.5% (95% CI: 88.5-100%) agreement between personal recall and claims/EMR for receiving HPV1. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of privately insured women, a majority received HPV1 and more than half completed the 3-dose vaccine series. Marked disparities in receipt of HPV vaccine by race/ethnicity were observed.