Losartan improves memory, neurogenesis and cell motility in transgenic Alzheimer's mice
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Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have demonstrated multiple neuroprotective benefits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models. However, their beneficial effects on memory deficits, cholinergic activity, neurogenesis and Amyloid beta (Aβ) clearance reveal significant interstudy variability. The delivery route can impact not only delivery but also targeting and therapeutic efficacy of ARBs. Our previous findings on the beneficial effects of intranasally delivered losartan in the APP/PS1 model of AD prompted us to explore the influence of the delivery route by employing here the systemic administration of losartan. Consistent with our previous results with intranasal losartan, repeated intraperitoneal administration (10 mg/kg) resulted in a remarkable decrease in Aβ plaques and soluble Aβ42, as well as inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6 and TNFα). The Aβ reduction can be ascribed to its facilitated degradation by neprilysin and diminished generation by BACE1. Losartan increased neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro and improved migratory properties of astrocytes isolated from adult transgenic AD mice. In summary, this data together with our previous results suggest therapeutic features of losartan which are independent of delivery route. The improvement of cell motility of Aβ-affected astrocytes by losartan deserves further in vivo investigation, which may lead to new strategies for AD treatment.
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