OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to better understand, in a commercially insured population, the potential impact of adopting six health-promoting behaviors relative to treating diseases and conditions. METHODS: We combined survey and insurance claims data to compare the potential benefit from adopting behaviors relative with the burden from 27 groups of diseases and conditions. RESULTS: If every member adopted all six behaviors, an 11.6% reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) might be expected, and a 7.6% reduction in DALYs might be expected if they adopted the one most impactful behavior that they did not currently practice. These amounts are, respectively, greater than the DALYs attributed to all but the two and five most burdensome groups of diseases and conditions in this population. CONCLUSIONS: The potential impact of adopting health-promoting behaviors is large relative to the burden from most medical conditions.